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urs, 31 Architecture, proportion in, 230 Art, some definitions of, 18 Artist, the, 27 Atmosphere indicated by shading, 102 Atmospheric colours, 39 Audley, Lady, Holbein's portrait of, 248 B "Bacchus and Ariadne," Titian's, 154, 193 Backgrounds, 93, 141 Balance, 219 Balance between straight lines and curves, 220 Balance between flat and gradated tones, 221 Balance between light and dark tones, 222 Balance between warm and cold colours, 223 Balance between interest and mass, 224 Balance between variety and unity, 225 "Bank-note" papers, 285 Bastien Lepage, 204 Bath for etching, 283 Beauty, definition of, 23 Beauty and prettiness, 135 Beauty and truth, 22 "Birth of Venus, the," Botticelli's, 163 Black chalk, 179 Black Conté, 280 Black glass, the use of a, 120, 202 Blake, example of parallelism, 145 Blake's designs, 51, 169 Blake's use of the vertical, 155 Blocking in the drawing, 90 Blocking out with square lines, 85, 120 "Blue Boy," Gainsborough's, 223 Botany, the study of, 36 Botticelli's work, 34, 51, 145, 163 Boucher's heads compared with Watteau's, 211 Boundaries of forms, 93 Boundaries of masses in Nature, 195 Bread, use of, in charcoal drawing, 276 Browning, R., portraits of, 250 Brush, manipulation of the, 114 Brush strokes, 115 Brushes, various kinds of, 115 Burke on "The Sublime and the Beautiful," 135 Burne-Jones, 55, 71, 125, 177 C Camera, use of the, 286 Carbon pencils, 180 Carlyle, 64 Circle, perfect curve of, to be avoided, 138 Chalks, drawing in, 125 Charcoal drawing, 54, 111, 113, 192, 275; fixing solution, 277 Chavannes, Peuvis de, 55, 103 Chiaroscuro, 53 Chinese art, 21 293 China and Japan, the art of, 59 Colour, contrasts of, 208 Colours for figure work, 273 Colours, a useful chart of, 191 Classic architecture, 148 Claude Monet, 62, 190 Clothes, the treatment of, 253 Composition of a picture, the, 216 Constable, 149 Conté crayon, 192, 277 "Contrasts in Harmony," 136 Conventional art, 74 Conventional life, deadness of the, 270 Corners of the panel or canvas, the, 160 Corot, his masses of foliage, 197, 214 Correggio, 206 Crow-quill pen, the, 283 Curves, how to observe the shape of, 90, 162, 209 Curves and straight lines, 220 D Darwin, anecdote of, 243 Deadness, to avoid, 132, 193 Decorative work, 183 Degas, 66 "Dither," 71 Diagonal lines, 160 Discord and harmony, 173 Discordant lines, 172 Draperies of Watteau, the, 211 Drapery studies in chalks, 125 Drapery in portrait-drawing, 253 Draughtsmanship and impressionism, 66 Drawing, academic, 35 Drawing, definition of, 31 E East, arts of the, 57 Edges, variety of, 192 Edges, the importance of the subject of, 198 Egg and dart moulding, 138 Egyptian sculpture, 135 Egyptian wall paintings, 51 El Greco, 169 Elgin Marbles, the, 135 Ellipse, the, 138 "Embarquement pour l'Île de Cythère," Watteau's, 211 Emerson on the beautiful, 214 Emotional power of the arts, 20 Emotional significance of objects, 31 Erechtheum, moulding from the, 138 Etching, 283 Exercises in mass drawing, 110 Exhibitions, 57 Expression in portrait-drawing, 242 Eye, anatomy of the, 105 Eye, the, in portrait-drawing, 242 Eyebrow, the, 105 Eyelashes, the, 108 Eyelids, the, 106 F "Fête Champêtre," Giorgioni's, 151 Figure work, colours for, 273 "Finding of the Body of St. Mark," 123, 236 Fixing positions of salient points, 86 Flaubert, 68 Foliage, treatment of, 196 Foreshortenings, 93 Form and colour, 18 Form, the influence of, 32 Form, the study of, 81 Frans Hals, 246 French Revolution, Carlyle's, 64 French schools, 68 Fripp, Sir Alfred, 91 Fromentin's definition of art, 23 Fulness of form indicated by shading, 102, 124 G Gainsborough, the charm of, 209, 223 Genius and talent, 17 Geology, the study of, 36 Giorgioni, 151, 196 "Giorgioni, The School of," Walter Pater's, 29 Giotto, 222 Glass pens, 283 Goethe, 64 Gold point, 275 Gold and silver paint for shading, 125 Gothic architecture, 148, 150 Gradation, variety of, 199 Greek architecture, 221 Greek art in the Middle Ages, 130 Greek art, variety in, 133 Greek vivacity of moulding, 134 Greek and Gothic sculpture, 147 294 Greek type of profile, 140 Greuze, 221 H Hair, the treatment of, 77, 102 Hair, effect of style upon the face, 180 Half tones, 98 "Hannibal crossing the Alps," Turner's, 163 Hardness indicated by shading, 102 Harsh contrasts, effect of, 171 Hatching, 118 Health, questions of, 269 Henner, the work of, 124 High lights, 94 Hogarth's definition, 136 Holbein's drawings, 99, 179, 247 Holl, Frank, 222 Horizontal, calm and repose of the, 150 Horizontal and vertical, the, 149 Human Anatomy for Art Students, 91 Human figure, the outline of the, 52 I Impressionism, 195, 257 Impressionist vision, 61 Ingres, studies of, 73, 274 Ink used in lithography, 282 Intellect and feeling, 19 Intuitions, 17 Italian Renaissance, the, 51 Italian work in the fifteenth century, 34 J Japanese art, 21 Japanese method, a, 47 Japanese and Chinese use of contrasts of colour, 208 K Keats' definition of beauty, 22 L Landscapes of Watteau, the, 211 Lang, Andrew, his definition of art, 19 Lawrence, Lord, portrait of, 250 Lead pencil, 192, 274 Lecoq de Boisbaudran, M., 260 Lehmann, R., portraits by, 250 Leonardo da Vinci, 51, 206, 227 Light, 38 Light and shade, principles of, 51, 95 Lighting and light effects, 202 Likeness, catching the, 240 Line and the circle, the, 137 Line drawing and mass drawing, 48, 50 Lines expressing repose or energy, 163 Line, the power of the, 50, 80 Lines, value of, in portrait-painting, 138 Lines of shading, different, 102, 123 Lithographic chalk, 192 Lithography, 281 "Love and Death," Watts', 156 M Manet, 206 Mass drawing, 49, 58, 80, 81, 110 Masters, past and modern, 272 Materials, 271 Mathematical proportions, 228 Measuring comparative distances, 88 Measurements, vertical and horizontal, 88 Medium, the use of, 111 Michael Angelo, the figures of, 33, 53, 56 Michael Angelo and Degas, 66 Millais, 196 Mist, effect of a, on the tone of a picture, 188 Model, the, 61, 81 Monet, Claude, 118 Morris's definition of art, 19 N Nature, variety of forms in, 187 Nature's tendency to pictorial unity of arrangement, 186 Newspaper as a background, 99 Norman architecture, 148 O Oil, surplus in paint, 191 Originality, 76 "Our Lady of the Rocks," L. da Vinci's, 206 Outline drawing, 50 Outline studies and models, 81 P Paint, the vitality of, 114 Paint, the consistency of, 117 Paint, effect of oil in thick, 191 "Painted Poetry," 46 Painter's training, the object of the, 29 295 Painting and drawing, 110 Panel or canvas, the, 159 Paolo Uccello, 171 Paolo Veronese, 145, 163 Paper for drawing, 279, 284 Parallel shading, 100 Parallelism of lines, 145 Parthenon, the, 55 Pater, Walter, 29 Pen-and-ink drawing, 101, 282 Pens for pen-and-ink drawing, 283 Perspective, the study of, 36, 195 Philip IV, Velazquez' portrait of, 194 Photograph, failure of the, 72 Picture galleries, the influence of, 33 Pictures, small and large, treatment of, 183 Planes of tone, painting in the, 122 Pre-Raphaelite paintings, 46 Pre-Raphaelite movement, the, 257 Preparatory drawings, disadvantage of, 121 Primitive art, 55, 128 Primitive emotions, 21 Procedure, in commencing a drawing, 265 Profiles, beauty of, 140 Proportions, 228 Poppy oil and turpentine, the use of, 119 Portrait-drawing, 99, 239 "Portrait of the Artist's Daughter," Sir E. Burne-Jones's, 177 Pose, the, 251 Peuvis de Chavannes, 55, 103 Q Quality and texture, variety in, 189 R Radiating lines, 171 "Rape of Europa, The," Paul Veronese's, 163 Raphael, 53, 231 Red rays, 39, 192, 278 Reed pens, 283 Rembrandt and his colours, 31, 204, 208 Reproduction, advantages of up-to-date, 104, 269 Retina, effect of light on the, 38 Reynolds' contrasts of colour, 208 Rhythm, definition of, 27, 127, 227 Right angle, power of the, 156 Roman sculpture, lack of vitality in, 133 Rossetti, 55 Royal Academy Schools, 69 Rubens, 162 Ruskin, 17 S Schools of Art, 68 Scientific and artistic accuracy, 36 Scientific study, necessity for, 36 Scumbling, 111 Shading, 51, 93, 101, 124 Shape, variety of, 185 Silhouette, the, 66 Silver-point, 275 Silver-point work, shading in, 101 Sitter, the, 249 Softness indicated by shading, 102, 123 Solar spectrum, the, 38 Solids as flat copy, 84 Spanish school, the, 62 Straight lines indicative of strength, 148 Straight lines and flat tones, analogy between, 209 Strong light in contrast with dark shadow, 206 Study of drawing, the, 80 Stump, the, 54 Style, 288 "Sublime and the Beautiful, The," Burke's, 135 "Surrender of Breda, The," Velazquez', 161, 194 Sympathetic lines, 173 T Talent and genius, 17 Teachers in Art Schools, 69 Technical side of an art, the, 21 Thickness and accent, variety of, 143 Tintoretto, 123, 237 Titian, 53, 154 Tolstoy's definition of art, 19 Tone, meaning of the word, 121, 187, 208 Tone values, variety of, 187 Toned paper, drawing on, 125 296 Tones, large flat, the effect of, 207 Touch, the sense of, 40 Trafalgar Square lions, the, 78 Trees, the masses of, 196 Turner, 163, 205, 214, 223 Types, lifelessness of, 134 U "Ulysses deriding Polyphemus," Turner's, 214 Uni