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ll ; these studies are afterwards used to place the figures in position on the canvas before the painting begins. Transferring.— The composition study must now be transferred to the canvas, to give the general arrangement and relative position-, size, and action of the figures, etc. If the drawing is the same size as the canvas it is done by tracing, if not, then it is "squared up." In this stage of the process mechanical exactness of proportion is the thing required, as well as the saving of time ; all things having been planned beforehand, and freedom of execution coming in later. This establishes the proportions, the sizes, and positions of the several figures on the final canvas. The drawing is not at this stage complete. The more general relations only are the purpose of this. Onto this preparation the studies drawn fron^ PROCEDURE IN A PICTURE 2>77 the nude model are "squared up," and the drawing corrected again from the nude model. This drawing is now covered with its drapery, which is drawn from the life in charcoal, or a frottee of some sort. At this stage the canvas should represent, in monochrome, very justly, what the finished picture will be in composition, drawing, and light and shade. If the frottee oi various colors (as suggested in the chapter on "Still Life") has been used, the general color scheme will show also. This completes the preliminary process of the picture, and when the painting is begun with 2^ frottee, this stage includes also Xk\& first painting. "TheEbouch." — An ^bouch is a painting which, mainly with body color, blocks in broadly and simply the main masses of a composition. Sometimes an ebouch is used as one of the preliminary color studies for a picture, especially if there is some problem of drapery massing to be determined, or other motive purely of color and mass. Or if there is some piece of landscape detail such as a building or what not to come in, Souckes for it will be made to be used in completing the picture. But more commonly the iboiich is the first blocking-in painting of the picture, by means of which the greater masses of color and value are laid onto the canvas, somewhat rudely, but strongly, so as to give a strong, firm impression of the picture, and a solid under-painting on which future 378 THE PAINTER IN OIL work may be done. Whether this ebouch is rough or smooth, just how much of it will be body or solid color and how much transparent, just what degree of finish this painting will have, — these depend on the man who does it. No two men work precisely the same way. Some men make what is practically a large and very complete sketch. Some paint quite smoothly or frankly, with more or less of an effect of being finished as they go, working from one side of the picture gradually across the whole canvas. Others work a bit here and a bit there, and fill in between as they feel inclined. Another way is to patch in little spots of rather pure color, so that the iboitch looks like a sort of mosaic of paint. In the matter of color, too, there is great difference of method. Some men lay in the picture with stronger color than they intend the finished picture to have, and gray it and bring it together with after-painting. Others go to the other extreme, and paint grayer and lighter, depending on glazings and full touches of color later on to richen and deepen the color. All the way between these two are modifications of method. The main difference between these extremes is that when stronger color is used in the first painting, the process is to paint with solid color all through ; while if glazings are to be much used, the Ebouch must be lighter and quieter in color, to allow for Ebouch of Portrait. Th. Robinson. One sitting of one hour and a half. PROCEDURE IN A PICTURE 38 1 the results of after-painting. For you cannot glaze up. You always glaze down. The glaze being a transparent color, used without white, will naturally make the color under it more brilliant in color, but darker in value, just as it would if you laid a piece of colored glass over it. And this result must be calculated on beforehand. Which of all these methods is best to use depends altogether on which best suits the man and his purpose in the picture or his temperament. A rough ebouch will not make a smooth picture. A mosaic gives a pure, clear basis of color to gray down and work over, and may be scraped for a good surface. It is a deliberate method, and will be successful only with a thoughtful, deliberate. painter. If a man is a timid colorist, a strong, even crude, under-painting will help to strengthen his color. A good colorist will get color any way. For a student, the more directly he puts down what he sees, the less he calculates on the effect of future after-painting, the better. But whichever way a man works as to these various beginnings, the chief thing is, that he understand beforehand what are the peculiar advantages and qualities of each, and that he consider before he begins what he expects to do, and how he purposes to do it. Further Painting. —The first painting may be put in from nature with the help of the several models 382 THE PAINTER IN OIL in succession. More probably it will be put in from the color sketch which furnishes the general scheme, and from a number of studies and ebouches which will give the principal material for each part of the canvas. With the next painting comes the more exact study from models and accessories themselves. The under-painting is in, the color relations and the contrasts of masses, but all is more or less crude and undeveloped. Every one thing in the picture must be gradually brought to a further stage of completion. The background is not as yet to be carried farther as a whole. If the canvas is all covered, so that the background effect is there, it is all that is needed as yet. The most important figures are to be painted, beginning with the heads and hands, and at the same time painting the parts next to them, the background and drapery close around them, so that the immediate values shall all be true as far as it has gone. No small details are painted yet. The \yhole canvas is carried forward by painting all over it, no one thing being entirely finished ; for the same degree of progress should be kept up for the whole picture. To finish any one part long before the rest is done, would be to run the risk of over-painting that part. After the heads and other flesh parts, the draperies should be brought up, and the background and all objects in it painted, to bring the whole PROCEDURE IN A PICTURE 383 picture to the same degree of completion. This finishes the second painting. It is all done from nature direct, and is painted solidly as a rule. Even if the first painting has been a frottee this one will have been solidly painted into that/ro///^, although the transparent rubbing may have been left showing, whenever it was true in effect ; inost probably in the shadows and broader dark masses of the backgrounds. In this second painting no glazings or scumblings come in. The. canvas is brought forward as far as possible with direct frank brush-work with body color before these other processes can be used. Glazes and such manipulations require a solid under-painting, and a comparative completion of the picture for safe work. These processes are for the modifying of color mainly ; you do not draw nor represent the more important and fundamental facts of the picture with them. All these things are painted first, in the most frank and direct way, and then you can do anything you want to on a sure basis of well-understood representation. There will be structure underneath your future processes. The Third Painting. —The third painting simply goes over the picture in the same manner as the second, but marking out more carefully the important details and enforcing the accuracy of features, or strengthening the accents of dark and bringing up those of the lights. The procedure 384 THE PAINTER IN OIL will, of course, be different, according as the picture was begun with an Souch of body color or a fi'oMe of transparent color. The third painting will, in either case, carry the picture as a whole further toward being finished. Rough and Smooth. — If body color has been used pretty freely in the two first paintings, the surface of paint will be pretty rough in places by the time it is ready for the third painting. Whether that roughness is a thing to be got rid of or not is something for the painter to decide for himself. Among the greatest of painters there have always been men who painted smoothly and men who painted roughly. I have considered elsewhere the subject of detail, but the question of detail bears on that of the roughness of the painting; for minute detail is not possible with much roughness of surface ; the fineness of the stroke which secures the detail is lost in the corrugations of the heavier brush-strokes. The effect of color, and especiallv luminosity, has much to tlo with the way the paint is put on also, and all these things are to be considered. As a rule, it might be well to look upon either extreme as something not of importance in itself. The mere quality of smoothness on the canvas is of no consequence or value, any more than the mere quality of roughness is. If these things are necessary to or consequent upon the getting of certain other qualities which are justly PROCEDURE IN A PICTURE 385 to be considered worth striving for, then these qualities will be seen on the canvas, and will be all right. The painter will do well to look on them as something incidental merely to the picture, If he will simply work quite frankly, intent on the expression of what is true and vital to his picture, the question of the surface qual